Revolutionary War Veteran Dies in Prison

Timothy Bigelow Painting

Photograph of a painting of Colonel Timothy Bigelow. Location, age, and artist unknown.

WORCESTER, Mass. — Colonel Timothy Bigelow, 50, was found dead in his jail cell on Wednesday, March 31, 1790.

In regards to the discharge of Colonel Bigelow, the old jail book simply stated: “By Deth.” The Revolutionary War veteran had been imprisoned just six weeks earlier on February 15, 1790 for unpaid debts.

His friend Isaiah Thomas, editor of the Massachusetts Spy (and whose printing press was smuggled out of Boston by Bigelow and hidden in the cellar of the Patriot’s Worcester home just a few days before the Battle of Lexington) had only this to say about the Colonel’s death in the April 7, 1790 edition of the Spy: “DIED. — in this town, Col. Timothy Bigelow aged 50.”

His countenance is not known, save for an unsourced photograph of a painting that has been floating around the internet for many years, attributed to Bigelow but without reference to the artist or location. The painting was rumored to be last seen hanging in the old Worcester District Courthouse before it was boarded up in 2007. Those who remembered him described his “tall and erect, and commanding figure, his martial air, his grave and rather severe countenance, his dignified and earnest address.”

Early Years

Timothy was born in the Pakachoag Hill area of Worcester on August 12, 1739 to Daniel and Elizabeth (Whitney) Bigelow. Prior to his military career, Timothy was a successful blacksmith with a shop located near Lincoln Square, where “he blew the bellows, heated and hammered the iron, shod the horses and oxen, and mended the ploughs and chains for the farms of the country about him.”

tea kettle

Tea kettle made by Timothy Bigelow in his blacksmithing days. Gifted to the Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1928 by his great-great granddaughter Louise Bigelow.

He fell in love with Anna Andrews, an orphaned heiress to her family’s fortune, and they eloped on July 2, 1762 in Hampton, New Hampshire, which was the “Gretna Green” of its day.

Military Career

Timothy was known for his eloquent speaking and steadfast convictions. He was a member of the Committee of Correspondence, a delegate to the Provincial Congress, and the organizer of the American Political Society. His military service was lengthy and his dedication unwavering. He trained the Worcester Minutemen on the Common and led them on the alarm of April 19, 1775. He took command of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment in 1776, witnessed Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga in 1777, and he suffered through the winter at Valley Forge in 1778. One of Col. Bigelow’s men stated that “Why, old Col. Tim was everywhere all the time, and you would have thought if you had been there, that there was nobody else in the struggle but Col. Bigelow and his regiment.”

Mistaken for George Washington

In her book Colonel Timothy Bigelow: A Historical Novel great-great granddaughter Louise Bigelow (who said that much of her book was based on old letters, diaries, and the tales of her grandfather) related this story of Colonel Bigelow’s capture in Quebec in 1777:

He was taken to a room with three British officers and repeatedly questioned about his identity. One officer took up the questioning and was so persistent that Timothy was soon greatly irritated.

‘Where did you come from?’ the man asked suspiciously.

‘Massachusetts,’ replied Timothy.

‘I think he came from Virginia,’ another officer interposed. Timothy looked at him witheringly.

‘I came from Worcester, Massachusetts,’ he said with much dignity.

‘Have you any children?’ the first officer continued.

‘Yes,’ Timothy answered proudly, ‘I have five.’

‘Washington hasn’t any children, has he?’ the man asked his companions in an undertone.

‘How tall are you?’ he asked abruptly.

‘Six foot three and a half,’ Timothy replied.

‘He’s taken off half an inch,’ the officer laughed sneeringly, ‘the last I heard, he was six foot four.’

‘Come on now, you might as well admit it, General,’ he demanded, suddenly curbing his laughter. ‘We know who you are. What’s the use in lying about it?’

‘I don’t know what you mean,’ Timothy said in bewilderment. ‘I am not lying. I have told you the truth in everything I have said.’

‘I could swear he is General Washington,’ the commanding officer said audibly enough for Timothy to overhear. ‘He is certainly tall and powerful enough to be. Well, let’s not take any chances. If he is Washington, we don’t want to put him in the Chateau.’

So Timothy was taken away to large pleasant room overlooking the river . . . excellent food was brought to him and this kindly treatment went on for about two weeks . . .”

According to Louise, once it was realized that he was not Washington,  he was thrown into an English prison ship. He was held for almost a year, a year which took a toll on his health from which he never fully recovered.

After the Revolution

Bigelow returned home from war a broken man, failing in both body and spirit. The government paid him for his years of service by granting him over 28,000 acres of Vermont wilderness, but that did nothing to offset his inability to successfully revive his blacksmithing business. The post-war inflation drove him heavily into debt, and he was subsequently thrown into prison where he died six weeks later.  He left behind his wife, Anna Andrews Bigelow (1747 – 1809) and six children: Nancy Bigelow Lincoln (1765 – 1839 ) Timothy Bigelow Jr. (1767 – 1821), Rufus Bigelow (1772 – 1813), Lucy Bigelow Lawrence (1774 – 1856) and Clarissa Bigelow (1781 – 1846) His son Andrew (b. 1769) predeceased him in 1787.

Bigelow Monument

Like most men of vision, Bigelow’s sacrifices went unrecognized for over 70 years, until his great-grandson Colonel Timothy Bigelow Lawrence erected a monument on the Common in his honor in 1861.

1861

Bigelow Monument in 1861.

WORCESTER SPY
10 APRIL 1861

THE BIGELOW MONUMENT — The remains of the late Col. Timothy Bigelow were on Monday exhumed from their burial place, in the northwest corner of the old cemetery on the Common. They were found in remarkable state of preservation. By direction of the committee having the matter of the monument in charge, they were encased in a metallic casket prepared for the purpose, and deposited in their last resting place, near the old spot, in the center of the lot in which the monument is to be erected.

WORCESTER SPY
17 APRIL 1861

THE BIGELOW MONUMENT — Friday noon, Mr. Hersey, in the presence of Col. T. B. Lawrence, Rev. Dr. Bigelow of Boston, a grandson of Col. Bigelow, Gov. Lincoln, and a large number of other gentlemen, deposited in the cavity made for them on the top of the first marble layer, two boxes full of documents prepared for the purpose of preservation there. The second layer of marble, a huge block weighing nine thousand pounds, suspended over it, was then let down and properly adjusted. The other layers were then put on, and the erection of the whole monument, with the exception of the putting in of the supporting pillars around the sides, completed about seven o’clock in the evening. The large crowd present celebrated the event by enthusiastic cheering.

Daughters of the American Revolution

In 1899, a Worcester chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution was formed, and it was decided to name the chapter in honor of Colonel Timothy Bigelow. The mission of the DAR is to promote historic preservation, education, and patriotism.

“I have long since come to the conclusion, to stand by the American cause, come what will. I have enlisted for life. I have cheerfully left my home and family. All the friends I have, are the friends of my country. I expect to suffer with hunger, with cold, and with fatigue, and, if need be, I expect to lay down my life for the liberty of these colonies.” — Colonel Timothy Bigelow.

References:

The Story of Worcester, Massachusetts by Thomas F. O’Flynn c. 1910

The Celebration by the Inhabitants of Worcester, Mass of the Centennial Anniversary of the Declaration of Independence c.1876.

Colonel Timothy Bigelow: A Historical Novel by Louise Bigelow c. 1941

Ceremonies at the Dedication of the Bigelow Monument c. 1861

The Massachusetts/Worcester Spy c. 1790, 1861

Some Historic Houses of Worcester c. 1919

Reminisces of the Military Life and Sufferings of Col. Timothy Bigelow by Charles Hersey c. 1860

Meeting minutes from the Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Worcester c. 1898/1899

History of Worcester, Massachusetts by William Lincoln c. 1837

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The Musket That Fired the Shot Heard ‘Round the World

Munroe musket

Meeting Hall at the Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Worcester, Massachusetts,  home to Ebenezer Munroe’s musket.

When Ebenezer Munroe awoke on his 23rd birthday, he probably couldn’t have imagined that his musket would be the one to fire “the shot heard ‘round the world,” or that it would end up in the home of a Loyalist judge, under the care of the Daughters of the American Revolution, in a city whose claim to fame is that they effectively ended British rule without firing a single shot.

But it’s true.

On this particular day I was sitting alone in the meeting hall of the Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chapter house, looking up at Ebenezer’s musket.  I had just mounted it above the fireplace.  I stared at it in awed silence, as though I were viewing the painting of a master in some cathedral . . . but this was more than a work of art.

It had taken me a long time to realize the significance of this musket.   When I first saw it in our collection, I thought, “oh how nice.  We’ve got a musket from the Battle of Lexington.” At the time, I wasn’t yet familiar with the story of this unassumingly presented artifact, which had been stored out-of-sight in a wooden coffin, along with a 3-ring binder stuffed haphazardly with handwritten notes, pictures, and newspaper clippings.  Once I took the time to read through the jumbled binder, I realized that Ebenezer’s musket wasn’t just “a musket,”  it was “THE musket,” and the weight of that recognition both thrilled me and frightened me, and made my heart pound.

Ebenezer Munroe (19 Apr 1752 – 25 May 1825) of Lexington, later of Ashburnham, was a yeoman farmer and militia corporal who answered the call to arms on April 19, 1775.   The following is an excerpt from his Deposition, (given on April 2, 1825 less than two months before his death) regarding the events of that day:

“Some of our men went into the meeting-house, where the town’s powder was kept, for the purpose of replenishing their stock of ammunition. When the regulars had arrived within eighty or one hundred rods, they, hearing our drum beat, halted, charged their guns, and doubled their ranks, and marched up at quick step. Capt. Parker ordered his men to stand their ground, and not to molest the regulars, unless they meddled with us. The British troops came up directly in our front. The commanding officer advanced within a few rods of us, and exclaimed, ‘Disperse, you damned rebels! you dogs, run!—Rush on my boys!’ and fired his pistol. The fire from their front ranks soon followed. After the first fire, I received a wound in my arm, and then, as I turned to run, I discharged my gun into the main body of the enemy. As I fired, my face being toward them, one ball cut off a part of one of my ear-locks, which was then pinned up. Another ball passed between my arm and my body, and just marked my clothes. The first fire of the British was regular; after that, they fired promiscuously. . . . When I fired, I perfectly well recollect of taking aim at the regulars. The smoke, however, prevented my being able to see many of them . . . I did not hear Captain Parker’s orders to his company to disperse . . .the balls flew so thick, I thought that there was no chance for escape, and that I might as well fire my gun as stand still and do nothing . . .”

After Ebenezer’s death in 1825, his musket was passed down through the generations,  until eventually it was sold to antique gun collector Granville Rideout of Ashburnham in the summer of 1950 for four dollars.   According to Granville, the musket had been left untouched in the Munroe family attic for many, many years, and it was still loaded when he bought it.

Granville kept the musket safe for over 50 years, while still managing to give it “public appearances” at local historical societies and museums.   On April 19, 1975, he rode on horseback to the reenactment on the Battle Green in Lexington, where Ebenezer’s musket was fired once more.

Granville Rideout 1975.jpg

Granville Rideout with Ebenezer Munroe’s musket, riding to Lexington Battle Green on April 19, 1975.

As I read through the binder, I could tell that Granville agonized over finding a final resting place for Ebenezer’s musket. He was worried that it would fall into the hands of a private collector and never be seen again.  In 2003, two years before his death, he gifted the musket to the Colonel Timothy Bigelow Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, on the condition that it be displayed and publicized, and be used to educate the youth about the founding of the United States of America.

If you would like to view Ebenezer Munroe’s musket, you can visit the Col. Timothy Bigelow Chapter House at 140 Lincoln Street in Worcester, Massachusetts during our summer tour season.   The dates are June 11, July 9, August 13, September 10, and October 8 and the hours are 1-4pm.  For more information or to schedule a group tour, you can contact us at col.timothybigelowchapter@gmail.com.  We are also on Facebook at https://www.facebook.com/col.timothybigelowdar/.

Postscript:  The title of this blog is in reference to Ralph Waldo Emerson’s poem “Concord Hymn,” in which he writes: 

“Here once the embattled farmers stood,
And fired the shot heard round the world.”

The reference is not a claim to the literal first shot of that battle, but rather a symbol of the American spirit,  their willingness to stake their lives for freedom.  Was Emerson talking about a specific shot, or was it a metaphor for that moment when the colonists crossed the threshold from yearning into action?  As a farmer who was present and whose deposition (and the deposition of others) confirms that he was one of the first ones to return fire on that historic day, Ebenezer Munroe did indeed fire a “shot heard round the world.”  

 

The Romance of Colonel Timothy Bigelow

“One of the saddest entries made in any record in the city of Worcester is the note on March 31, 1790 in the old jail book, of the discharge of Colonel Timothy Bigelow: ‘By Deth.'” — Some Historic Houses of Worcester, c. 1919.

James Turner portrays Colonel Timothy Bigelow in James David Moran's play "The Chains of Liberty," which was performed on September 7, 2014 as part of the Worcester Revolution 1774 festivities.  Photo courtesy of Judy Jeon-Chapman.

Colonel Timothy Bigelow as portrayed by James Turner in James David Moran’s play “The Chains of Liberty,” which was performed on September 7, 2014 as part of the Worcester Revolution 1774 festivities. Photo courtesy of Judy Jeon-Chapman.

According to one of Colonel Timothy Bigelow’s men in Reminiscences of the Military Life and Sufferings of Col. Timothy Bigelow, “old Col. Tim was everywhere all the time, and you would thought if you had been there, that there was nobody else in the struggle but Col. Bigelow and his regiment.”  He was present at nearly every major battle during the Revolutionary War before succumbing to a premature death in debtor’s prison at the age of 50.   Yet before his military service in  Yorktown, Rhode Island and New Jersey . . . before suffering through the winter at Valley Forge in 1778 and witnessing Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga in 1777, before taking command of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment in 1776 and  leading Worcester Minutemen on the alarm of April 19, 1775 . . . and before serving on the Committee of Correspondence and spending his days in eloquent support of his fellow Patriots,  Revolutionary War hero Colonel Timothy Bigelow was simply “Tim Bigelow,” a successful blacksmith, and he was in love with a girl:

"Timothy Bigelow Romance" newspaper article from March 1909.

“Timothy Bigelow Romance” newspaper article from March 1909.

TIMOTHY BIGELOW ROMANCE

by Jeanette A. W. Ramsay, D.A.R.

March 9, 1909

“Among the Scotch settlers in Worcester, there came over an Irish family by the name of Rankin.  They had several daughters, the youngest of whom was Anna — beautiful Anna Rankin!

At that time there was a family here, very respectable for the times, by the name of Andrews. One of the boys was named Samuel, who was at the time an undergraduate in Harvard College.

Samuel came home to spend a vacation and while at home he saw Anna Rankin and taking a liking to “her neck,” which, like Kathleen Bawn’s, was “so soft and smooth without a freckle or speck,” he “fell in love,” as the novel-writers say.  He forthwith threw Latin and Greek to the dogs, mad love to Anna and in due time married, and purchasing a farm on the west side of Quinsigamond Lake, he settled down and became an industrious and frugal yeoman.

In that occupation he prospered so well that in a few years he quitted his farm and moved to the village, and built him a house on the very spot where the stone jail was subsequently erected (on the corner of Lincoln square and northwest corner of Summer Street).

Afterward he built him a larger and better house on the ground now occupied by the block of brick houses, opposite the Courthouse. (Please note the locality.  Lincoln in his History gives it so, page 281, also using the word “dwellings.”)

Father and mother both died, leaving an only daughter named Anna, after her mother Anna Rankin, with an estate that made her the principal heiress of Worcester in those times.

In the rear of the Andrews house, “Tim” Bigleow had a blacksmith’s shop where he blew the bellows, heated and hammered the iron, shod the horses and oxen, and mended the ploughs and chains for the farmers of the country about him.

Now Tim “was as bright as a button,” more than six feet high, straight and handsome, and walked upon the earth with a natural air and grace that was quite captivating.

Tim saw Anna and Anna saw Tim and they were well satisfied with each other.

But as he was then, nothing but Tim Bigelow, “the blacksmith,” the lady’s friends, whose ward she was would would not give their consent to a marriage.  So, watching for an opportunity, the lovers mounted fleet horses and rode a hundred miles to Hampton, in New Hampshire, which lies on the coast between Newburyport and Portsmouth, and was at that time the “Gretna Green” for all young men and maidens for whom true love did not run a smooth course in Massachusetts.

They came back to Worcester as Mr. and Mrs. Timothy Bigelow. He was a man of decided talent, and well fitted by nature for a popular leader.

All the leading men of the town at that time were tories.

He espoused the cause of the people, and soon had a party strong enough to control the town and being known as a Patriot, he was recognized by Hancock, Samuel Adams, Gen. Warren, James Otis and others of the Patriot party, throughout the province.

He was sent as a delegate from Worcester to the “provincial congress” and as a captain of the Minute Men, he led his company from Worcester to Cambridge, on the 19th of April 1775, at the summons of a messenger who rode swiftly into town that day, on a large white horse, announcing that the war had begun.

For a long time afterward that express man was always spoken of as “death on a pale horse.”

Timothy Bigelow soon rose to the rank of major, and afterward to that of colonel of the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment, which was composed almost exclusively of Worcester countrymen.

He was at the storming of Quebec, at the taking of Burgoyne, in the terrible scenes of Valley Forge and on almost every other field made memorable by the fierce conflicts of the Revolution.

When the war was over, he returned to his home,  his constitution shattered by hard service for his country.  His occupation gone, his money matters in sad derangement, in consequence of that formidable depreciation of the currency, under which $40 was scarcely sufficient to pay for a pair of shoes.

He died at what was long known as the “Bigelow mansion,” formerly the Andrews house, just after he had passed the 50th year of his life.

And thus ended the “love affair” which produced a prodigious excitement in its day.

His direct descendants: —

First: Nancy, born January 2, 1765, married the Hon. Abraham Lincoln, long selectman, etc.

Second: Timothy, born April 30, 1767, married Lucy Precot, died at Medford, May 18, 1821, aged 54 years.

Third: Andrew, born March 30, 1769, died November, 1787.

Fourth: Rufus, born July 7, 1772, died in Baltimore, December 21, 1813, unmarried.

Fifth: Lucy, born May 13, 1774, married the Hon. Luther Lawrence of Groton.

Sixth: Clara, born December 29, 1781, married Tyler Bigelow, Esq. of Watertown.

A son of Col. Bigelow bore the name of his father and was for a long time a prominent lawyer at Groton, and afterwards at Medford in Middlesex county.  John P. Bigelow, formerly secretary of state — and some time mayor of Boston, was a son of Timothy Bigelow, 2nd.

Mrs. Abbott Lawrence (Katherine), a sister of John P. Bigelow and daughter of Timothy 2nd (and I am thinking that they have no occasion to be ashamed of their descent from the poor Irish emigrant).

Anna Rankin, the beautiful daughter of the Irish emigrant James Rankin, who married the young collegian Sam Andrews, whose daughter, Anna Andrews, was the wife of Col. Timothy Bigelow, the patriot blacksmith of the Revolution.

Thus by irresistible destiny, runs the chain of life’s changes, linking on generation after generation, and binding together the last and first of the human race.

First: The humble emigrant, James Rankin, born in Londonderry, Ireland, where his ancestors had lived for 200 years.

Second: His daughter Anna, who married Samuel Andrews, the young collegian.

Third: Their daughter, Anna Andrews, the heiress, who eloped with Tim Bigelow.

Fourth: Timothy Bigelow, the younger, the lawyer and statesman, and John P. Bigelow, his son, who was secretary of state and former mayor of Boston and his sister Katherine, who married the millionaire Lawrence, who represented the United States at the “Court of St. James.”

Fifth: The sons and daughters who, if not already known to fame, may be hereafter.

Note in Lincoln’s History: — After Timothy Bigelow returned from the army, the war being over, he erected a trip hammer and other iron works, on the site of the Court Mills, afterward owned by Stephen Salisbury, Esq.

From Wheelock’s memoirs and other sources.”